Servo Motor Oil Information Centre
American Automobile Manufacturers Association
Association of Automobile Constructors in Europe
Association Francaise De Normalisation - France
American Gear Manufacturers Association
Association of Hydraulic Equipment Manufacturers
American National Standards Institute
American Petroleum Institute
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Society for Testing and Materials
Automatic Transmission Fluid
British Standards Institution
Viscosity in centiPoise, as determined by Brookfield Viscometer (ASTM D2983) to usually express Low-Temp.properties of gear oils and Transmission Fluids
CentiPoise, unit used to express absolute viscosity. 1cP=1mPa*s, 1cP=1cST x density (g/cm3) cranking and pumping viscosities (low temprature "W" grade) and high temp. / high shear (at 150C) are measured in centiPoise
Centistokes (1/100 stokes) unit used to express viscosity, measure of a fluids resistance to flow at high temp. either 40C or 100C (Kinematic Viscosity) 1cST=1rnm2/s
cST @ 40C/100C
Kinematic Viscosity incST at 40C and 100C (ASTM D445)
Cold Cranking Simulator
Coordinating European Council
Cold Filter Plugging Point
Chemical Manufacturers Association - USA
Coordinating Research Council - USA
Diesel Engine Oil
Deutsches Institut Fur Normung - Germany
Department of Transportation - USA
Engine Manufacturers Association - USA
Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System
Environmental Protection Agency USA
Food and Drug Adminstration -USA
minimum temprature at which vapor is produced to yield a combustible mixture (ASTM D92)
Global DHD-1 Global performanceSpec. developed for 4-Stroke cycle diesel engine oil in vehicles over 8,600 LB. GVWR by EMA, ACEA, JAMA
Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oil
Heavy Duty Engine Oil
Heavy Duty Engine Oil Classification Panel
High Temperature High Shear Rate Viscosity
High Temperature / High Sear rate Viscosity at 150C in cP (ASTM D683)
Independent Lubricant Manufacturers Association
International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee - A joint effort by GM Ford Motor Chrysler and Japanese Automakers
Institute of Petroleum - UK
International Standards Organization
Viscosity Grade system for Hydraulic Oils introduced by International Standards Organization
Japanese Automobile Manufacturers Association
Japanese Automobile Standards Organization
Locomotive Maintenance Officers Association
Marine Cylinder Lubricant
Military Specifications - USA
Motor Industry Research Association
Motor Octane Number
Mini Rotary Viscometer
Material Salty Data Sheet
Marine System Oil
Multiple Test Acceptance Criteria
Multiviscosity - Grade Oils, Non-Newtonian Oils, which commonly contain polymeric additives as viscosity modifier for both Low-Temp. (10W SAE for example) and High-Temp. (30 SAE for example) applications, and which are described by Low-Temp. SAE viscosity grade followed by High-Temp. SAE viscosity grade as in SAE 10W-30 for example
Natural Gas Engine Oil
National Lubricating Grease Institute
National Marine Manufacturers Association - USA
National Petroleum Refiners Association - USA
Original Equipment Manufacturer
Octane Requirement Increase
Petroleum Association of Japan
Passes Car Engine Oil Classification Panel
Passenger Car Motor Oil
Permanent Type Antifreeze Coolants
PP (Pour Point)
low temp. flow indicator in degrees celsius (ASTM D97)
Research Octane Number
Society of Automotive Engineers
Super High Performance Diesel
API service category for Spark ignition internal combustion engines - Gasoline, Propane, CNG
(Solvent Neutral) Solvent Refined Paraffinic base oil
Shear Stability Index
Society of Tribologists and Lubrication_ Engineers
Super Tractor Oil Universal
Single Viscosity-Grade Oils - newtonian oils which may be either low temp. Single-Grades grade oils (with W-winter suffix such as OW, 5W 10W etc.) OR high-temp. oils such as 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 SAE viscosity grades
non-combustible residue (ASTM 0874) in % weight
total base no which measures the relative alkalinity of an oil - ability of an alkali to neutralize the effect of acid formation - mg KOH/g (ASTM D2896)
Transmission Differential and Hydraulic
Tractor Hydraulic Fluid
Trunk Piston Engine Oil
US Department of Agriculture
United States Pharmacopoeia
Universal Tractor Transmission Oil
Oils multi API category oils eg SC/CC or SD/CC etc.
Viscosity Index - an indicator of the rate of change of viscosity with temp. (ASTM D2270)
Viscosity Index Improver
potassium boro hydride
lithem aluminum hydride
- Lubricating Oils and Greases
Lubricating Oils and Greases *
Servo Motor Oil Pvt. Ltd. Is an ISO 9001-2008 certified Company. The certification is provided by the famous Italian firm Bureau Veritas.
In 2014, Servo Motor Oil Pvt. Ltd. And Petroeco of Poland have become technical partners and Servo has started manufacturing Greases and Brake Oils with the technical help of Petroeco.
At Servo Motor Oil we buy Base Oils from the National Refinery Ltd. Karachi, for formulations where group II base oils are required we import them from Singapore, and we buy our Additives from the world-renowned additives manufacturers like Lubrizol and Infinium of USA
Following are the names of international organizations that govern the standards which are followed by lubricants and grease manufacturers all over the world:
Society of Automotive Engineers - Establishes standards for the physical properties of lubricants
American Petroleum Institute - Establishes standards for the chemical properties of lubricants
National Lubricating Grease Institute - Establishes standards for the physical properties of greases
Servo Motor Oil Pvt. Ltd. Is the only Pakistani Grease manufacturer who is a member of NLGI (visit www.nlgi.com)
ASTM:- American Standards for Testing Materials - Establishes procedures for tests which verify SAE, API and NLGI standards.
The main purpose of lubricants is to lubricate moving parts of the vehicle, to reduce friction and wear and tear by providing smooth, trouble free performance for an increased length of time.
A lubricant is a blend of base oils and performance-enhancing additives as required by the engine, gear box and other application areas. At the refinery, the crude oil is refined into gasoline, diesel, kerosene, LPG, naphtha and base stocks (Lube Base Oils). This base stock is further processed, blended and strengthened with required properties to make different kinds of lubricants.
Of all the lubricants, engine oil is the most import. Lubricants for gasoline and diesel engine are different as the load, cycles and fuels are different.
The oil in an engine does more than just reduce friction between its moving parts. It also helps to:
(i) Seal the high-pressure combustion gases inside the cylinders
(ii) To impede the corrosion of metal parts
To absorb some of the harmful by-products of combustion
(iv) And to transfer heat from one part of the engine to another
Combustion of rich air-fuel mixture during starting, idling and warm up forms deposits, These deposits, in the form of varnish, sludge, soot and carbon, interfere with proper engine operation.
The engine oil keeps all the deposit forming materials in suspension and gets rid of them by oil filter, or draining out at proper intervals.
Petrol Engine Oil
Engine oil is stored in the oil pan or sump at the bottom of the engine. A pump forces the oil through a filter and then through a series of passages and galleries to lubricate the engine’s moving parts. The flow of oil also cools these parts. Rapidly moving engine parts actually float on a thin film of oil and never make contact with one another. This is called hydrodynamic lubrication and usually begins when an engine reaches the idle speed. Most engine wear occurs when a cold engine is first started, before the oil reaches its normal operating pressure and flow.
Diesel Engine Oil
The main function of lubricant for diesel engine is the same as mentioned for petrol engine. As the load in diesel engine is much higher it should have adequate anti-wear properties. Diesel fuel contains a high level of Sulphur which burns to form oxides of sulphur , which in turn in the presence of water, form sulphur acids resulting in high corrosion of engine parts. Hence the need of alkalinity reserve in the oil, which is represented by its TBN or Total Base Number. Generally, the higher TBN value more the alkalinity reserve or acid neutralizing capacity the oil contains.
Motorcycle Engine Oil
The main function of lubricant for motorcycle engine is the same as mentioned for petrol engine. Since the motorcycle is designed differently i.e. in a motorcycle its engine and gearbox are operating in the same enclosed case where as in other vehicles the engine and the gear-box function separately. So the motorcycle oil works as an engine oil and as a gear-box oil. To give this oil the added property of a gear oil the Extreme Pressure (EP) additive is added so that it can lubricate the gear-box as well as the engine of the motorcycle.
Gear Oil is a lubricant made specifically for Transmissions, Transfer Cases and Differentials in automobiles, trucks, tractors and other machinery. It is of higher viscosity to better protect the gears and usually is associated with a strong sulfur smell. This smell is present due to the addition of EP (extreme pressure) additives in Gear Oil.
Gear Oil is kept very viscous to ensure transfer of the lubricant throughout the gear train. This is necessary since the devices needing this heavy oil do not have pumps for transferring the oil. So the gear system is designed in a way that a portion of the lowermost gears stay bathed in an oil sump.
Hydraulic Oils/fluids/liquids are the medium by which power is transferred in hydraulic machinery. The ideal hydraulic fluid will have zero compressibility.
Brake Oil is also a type of Hydraulic Oil but since a very high boiling point is required for the brake systems to function properly, instead of mineral oils a mixture of glycols and either are used instead to make brake oil.
Metal Cutting Oil
Cutting Oil is a type of coolant and lubricant designed specifically for metalworking and machining processes. Of the various types manufactured around the world Servo Motor Oil is manufacturing Oil-Water emulsion type cutting oils.
These Oils are very useful for Turning, Milling, Boring, Drilling, Grinding and all other machining operations where water emulsion oils are recommended.
Additives- what they do
Plain mineral oils cannot provide all the necessary functional properties that an engine requires. These plain mineral oils need fortification with chemicals/additives which when used in small quantities, import or enhance the desirable functional properties. Some of the types of additives and reasons for their use are as follows:
These additives keep sludge, carbon and other deposit precursors suspended in oil.
These additives keep the engine parts clean from deposits.
These additives prevent or control oxidation of oil, formation of varnish, sludge and corrosive compounds, limit viscosity increase (i.e. thickening of oil).
Extreme Pressure (EP), Anti wear and friction modifiers:
These additives form protective film on the engine parts and reduce wear and tear. Their most important function is to protect the gears of a system.
These additives form surface films so that metal surface does not catalyze oil oxidation.
Pour Point Depressants:
These additives lower the freezing point of oils assuring free flow at lower temperatures.
These additives reduce the formation of foam in the crankcase and in the blending Kettles.
These additives chemically bond with the metal parts and form a thin protective layer on the moving parts surface.
These additives are added to base stocks to make them more viscous.
Viscosity Index Improvers:
These additives are unique polymeric molecules that are sensitive to temperature. At low temperatures, the molecule chain contracts and does not impact the oil viscosity but at high temperatures, the chain relaxes and an increase in viscosity of oil occurs.
Servo Motor Oil currently manufactures the following API (American Petroleum Institute), SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) and NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) grades for:
API : SC - SAE : 30/40
API : SF - SAE : 20W-50
API : SF - SAE : 20W-50 semi-synthetic
API : SM - SAE : 20W-50
API : SB - SAE : 40
API : SC - SAE : 50
API : SF - SAE : 20W-50
API : SF - SAE : 20W-50 semi-synthetic
API : SM - SAE : 20W-50
Diesel Engine Oils:
API : CB - SAE : 50
API : CB - SAE : 60
API : CC - SAE : 50
API : CD - SAE : 50
API : CE - SAE : 50
API : CF - SAE : 20W-50
API : CF4 - SAE : 20W-50 semi-synthetic
API : GL4 - SAE : 140
API : GL4 - SAE : 140 semi-synthetic
ISO - HM68
ISO standard 6743-4:1999 classify hydraulic oils as following:
HH - mineral oil base fluids with no additives added
HL - mineral oil base fluids with oxidation and rust inhibitors added
HM - HL class but improved by adding anti-wear additives
DOT = Department Of Transportation USA
Metal Cutting Oils:
Lithium Base Multi-Purpose Greases - NLGI 3
Calcium Base Multi-Purpose Greases - NLGI 3
Polly-Urea Base Multi-Purpose Greases - NLGI 3
Clay Base Multi-Purpose Non-Drop Greases - NLGI 3 for High Temperature applications
Expanded Silica Base Multi-Purpose Non-Drop Greases - NLGI 3 for High Temperature and demanding applications
A special blend we call PPG (process plant grease) it works very effectively on slow moving rollers bearing very heavy loads.
Since we are a complete blending and packing house of lubricants, we can produce all grades of Diesel Engine Oils, Petrol Engine Oils, Gear Oils, Hydraulic Oils, ATF (Automatic Transmission Fluids), Power Steering Oils, Brake Oils, Coolants and all types of Greases.
Our Packing range for lubricants is 700ml to 205-liter drums. We can ship lorry loads at our customer’s request.
Our Packing range for greases is 180gm, 500gm, 1Kg, 3Kg, 180Kg drums. Also, we can manufacture all NLGI grades of all types of greases we manufacture.
- Shear Stability
Shear Stability... one measure of how good an oil is...
Shear Stability is a measure of the resistance of an oil to change in viscosity, caused by the oil being subjected to mechanical stress or shear.The result of this mechanical stress is a reduction is viscosity, or thinning.
Multi-grade engine oils, high viscosity index (HVI) hydraulic fluids and certain gear oils are usually formulated using polymeric thickeners (viscosity index improver's) to give better viscosity index characteristics.
These oils viscosities vary inversely with the rate of shear to which they have been subjected to, that is, as the rate of shear increases, the viscosity of the oil decreased.As the viscosity index improver itself is also subjected to shear, both permanent and temporary loss of viscosity can occur.Viscosity decreases as long as the shear stress is maintained and in the case of temporary loss, the oil returns towards its original value as the shear stress is reduced.
In the case of permanent viscosity loss, shear stress causes breaking or shearing of the polymer molecules resulting in destruction of the polymeric viscosity index improver.While all VI improver's are subjected shear stress causes breaking or shearing of the polymer molecules resulting in destruction of the polymeric viscosity index improver.
The shear stability of VI improver's are evaluated using standard mechanical stress or shear testing laboratory equipment where in the VI improved oils viscosity is measured before and after being subjected to standard shear conditions.High quality multi-grade and HVI oils are formulated using a VI improver with a low SSI.
- API Motor Oil Guide
API Motor Oil Guide
Which Oil is Right for you? The current and previous API Service categories are listed below. Vehicle owners should refer to their owner's manuals before consulting these charts. Oils may have more than one performance level.
lEor automotive gasoline engines the latest engine oil service category includes the performance properties of each earlier category. If an automotive owner’s manual calls for API SJ or SL oil, an API SM oil will provide full protection. For diesel engines the latest category usually - but not always -includes the performance properties of an earlier category.
For all automotive engines presently in use. Introduced in 2004 SM oils are designed to provide improved oxidation resistance, improved deposit
PC10 SM Current protection, better wear protection and better low-temperature performance over the life of the oil. Some SM oils may also meet the latest ILSAC specification and/or qualify as Energy Conserving.
For 2004 and older automotive engines
For 2001 and older automotive engines
For 1996 and older engines.
For 1993 and older engines
For 1988 and older engines
Caution: Not suitable for use in gasoline-powered automotive engines built after 1979.
Caution: Not suitable for use in gasoline-powered automotive engines built Obsolete after 1971. Use in more modern engines may cause unsatisfactory performance or equipment harm.
Caution: Not suitable for use in gasoline-powered automotive engines built obsolete after 1967. Use in more modern engines may cause unsatisfactory performance or equipment harm.
Caution: Not suitable for use in gasoline-powered automotive engines built obsolete after 1951. Use in more modern engines may cause unsatisfactory
Performance or equipment harm.
Caution: Contains no additive, Not suitable for use in gasoline-powered Obsolete automotive engines built after 1930. Use in more modern engines may cause unsatisfactory performance or equipment harm.
Note: API intentionally omitted SI and SK from the sequence of categories because the letters are commonly associated with other organizations or systems. This guide is provided as a service to the motoring public courtesy of the American Petroleum Institute.
Introduced in 2006 for high speed, 4 stroke engines designed to meet 2007 model year on-highway exhaust emission standards. CJ-4 oils are compounded for use in all applications with diesel fuels ranginging in sulfur content up to 500ppm (0.05% by weight). However, use of these oils with greater than 15 ppm (0.0015% by weight) sulfur fuel may impact exhaust after treatment system durability where particulate filters and other advanced after treatment systems are used. Optimum protection is provided for control of catalyst poisoning, particulate filter blocking, engine wear, piston deposits, and low and high-temperature stability. Soot handling properties. Oxidative thickening. foaming and viscosity loss due to shear, API CJ-4 oils exceed the performance criteria of API CI-4 with CI-4 Plus, CI-4, CH-4, CG-4 and CF-4 and can effectively lubricate engines calling for those API service categories, when using CJ-4 of with higher than 15 ppm sulfur fuel, consult the engine manufacturer for service interval.
Introduced in 2002 for high speed, 4 stroke engines designed to meet 2004 exhaust emission standards implemented in 2002. CI-4 oils are formulated to
Current sustain engine durability where exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is used and are intended for use with diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to as% weight. Can be used in place of CD CE CF-4 CG-4 and CH-4 oils, Some CI-4 oils may also qualify for the CI-4 Plus designation.
Introduced in 1998 for high speed, 4 stroke engines designed to meet 1998 exhaust emission standards. CH-4 oils are specifically compounded for use
With diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to 0.5% weight. Can be used in place of CD, CE, CF-4 and CG-4 oils.
Introduced in 1995 for severe duty, high speed, 4 stroke diesel engines using fuel with less than 0.5% weight sulfur. CG-4 oils are required for engines
Meeting 1994 emission standards. Can be used in place of CD, CF and CF-4 oils.
Introduced in 1990 for high-speed 4-stroke naturally aspirated and turbo-charged diesel engines. Can be used in place of CD and CE oils.
Introduced in 1994 for serve duty 2-stroke diesel engines. Can be used in place of CD-II oils.
Introduced in 1994 for off-road in-direct injected and other diesel engines. Current Including those using fuel with over 0.5% weight sulfur. Can be used in place of CD oils.
Introduced in 1985 for high-speed 4-stroke naturally aspired and turbocharged engines. Can be used in place of CC and CD OILS.
Introduced in 1985 for 2-stroke cycle engines.
Introduced in 1955 for certain naturally aspired and turbocharged engines.
Caution, Not suitable for use in diesel-powered engines built after 1990
Caution: Not suitable for use in diesel-powered engines built after 1961
Caution: Not suitable for use in diesel-powered engines built after 1959.
API intentionally omitted "Sl" and "SO" from the sequence of categories because the letters are commonly associated with other organizations or
c'e' systems. This guide is provided as a service to the motoring public. Courtesy of the American Petroleum Institute.
For more information about the API engine oil program, call the API at 202¬682.8516 or visit our website at www.api.org/eolcs.
API - American Petroleum Institute
- SAE Viscosity Grades for Engine Oils
Source: all about Motor Oil - web http://motorcycleinfo.calsci.com/Oils1.html
Source, Understanding the SAE Motor Oil Viscosity Standard - www.ideas4ag-ed.corn
Note: Straight Weights eg 10 20 30 40 50 60 are different than W grades eg 5W 10VV 20W
SAE Viscosity Grades for Engine Oils
the following tests are run in a viscosity measuring bath type apparatus - we have this - as per ASTM - D445 - vertical flow
cP = centipoise - mPa.s = milli Pascal-second - measured by Rheometer
Kinematic viscosity (cSt) Low Shear Rate at 1000C
Dynamic Viscosity (mPa.$) High Shear Rate at 150C
From 5.6 To 9.3 cST at 100c
2.6 cP at 150c
From 9.3 To 12.5 cST at 100c
2.9 cP at 150c
From 12 5 To 16.3 cST at 100c
2.9 cP at 150c
From 12.5 To 16.3 cST at 100c
3.7 cP at 150c
From 163 To 219 cST at 100c
3.7 cP at 150c
From 21 9 To 261 cST at 100c
37 cP at 150c
Ow-40. 5w-40, 10w-40 grades
15w-40, 20w-40, 25w-40, 40 grades
- Winter Grades are designated by W after the number – eg 20W
The following tests are run in a special test apparatus called – cold cranking simulator (CCS)
SAE J300 (1999) Motor Oil Grades - Low Temp. Specifications
Dynamic Viscosity (mPa.s)
3,250cP at -30c
6.200 at -35c
60,000cP at -40c
3,5000P at -25c
6,600 at -30c
60.000cP at -35c
3,500cP at -20c
60.000cP at -30c
3,500cP at -15c
7,000 at -200
60,000cP at -25c
4.500cP at -10c
9,500 at -15c
60,000cP at -20c
6,000cP at -Sc
13,000 at -10c
60 000P at -15c
Oldest Specs. - SAE J300 (1911 ca.) Motor Oil Specifications
Flow Rate at 100 C
SAE started grading motor oil in 1911
15 To 24 Seconds
movement of different layers of fluid were
25 to 34 Seconds
measured when subjected to a horizontal
35 to 44 Seconds
force - 5 grades were identified
SAE 60 was added later to the list
- API & SAE Categories for Gear Oils
API & SAE Categories for Gear Oils
as of July 2009
- General Description of Base Oils
General Description of Base Oil
In 1990 API established a base oil classification system to help marketers to minimize re-testing costs when blending licensed engine oils with base oils from different manufacturing sources. The system uses physical and chemical parameters to divide all base stocks into 5 groups as listed below:
API - Classification of Base Oils
Saturate wt %
Sulphur wt %
< 90 and / or
> 80 to <120
> 80 to <120
All poly Alpha Olefins (PAOs)
Lubricants property improves
All Base Stocks not incl. in Groups I- IV
Naphthenic – Synthetic esters
High Viscosity Index
Better Oxidation stability – Low oxidation
Pour (freezing) Point is not very good – 20c
Solvency characteristics (additive mixing) are not good
Good to make engine Oils
Low viscosity index
Bad oxidation stability – high oxidation
Pour (freezing)points is very good – 60c
Solvency characteristics (additive mixing) are good
Good to make out of engine oils – e.g hydraulic etc.
- Lube Base Oil Specifications
National refinery data sheet
Lube Base Oil Specifications
Viscosity Index = VI Min.
Pour Point CD-97 Max.
Flash Point C COC D-92 Min.
Conradson Carbon wt . % D-189 Max.
Color ASTM D-1500 Max.
Aged for 24 Hrs. at 100C-Color ASTM D-1500Max.
Acid No. mg KOH/g of Lube ASTM D-974 Max.
Notes – Market Names
65 Neutral HVI
For transformer Oil
100 Neutral HVI
150 Neutral HVI
400 Neutral HVI
500 Neutral HVI
Bright Stock HVI
100 Neutral MVI
650 Neutral MVI
Bright Stock MVI
Colors Meters normally measure from 0 (no color) to 8 (black)
The Viscosity Index - The relationship between Viscosity and Temperature is described by the Viscosity Index (VI) - the higher the VI of an Oil the lesser it's viscosity varies with the increase or decrease in temperature
If VI VI is above 80 base oil is HVI grade if below 80 but above 50 base oils are MVI
- Viscosity Conversion Chart used for Commercial & Industrial Lubricant
Viscosity Conversion Chart for commonly used Commercial & Industrial Lubricant Viscosity Ratings
ISO Viscosity Grade
AGMA Grade No.Aprox.
SAE Viscosity No.Aprox.
SAE Lube No.Aprox.
Kinematic Viscosity Centistokes at 40C (104F)
Saybolt Viscosity (SUS) at 40C (104F) Aprox.
International Standards Organization
American Gear Manufacturers Association
Society of Automotive Engineers
- PSI Specifications (343.1981) Pakistan Standards Institute
PSI Specifications (343.1981) Pakistan Standards Institute
Lubricating Oil for Internal Combustion Engines
PSI Specifications (343.1981) Pakistan Standards Institute
Characteristics of the products
Method Followed by PSI
Flash Point COC, Degree C
Kinematic Viscosity at 100o C, cST
Kinematic Viscosity at 18o C, cST
Pour Point oC
Copper Strip Corrosion, 3 Hours at 100oC
As applicable for individual Grade
Applicable after incorporation of sufficient quantity of pour point depressant which could reduce its pour point to -21oC
Performance tests form part of specifications
- Gear Oil
Gear oil is a lubricant made specifically for transmissions, transfer cases, and differentials in automobiles, trucks, and other machinery. It is of a higher viscosity to better protect the gears and usually is associated with a strong sulfur smell. The high viscosity ensures transfer of lubricant throughout the gear train. This is necessary since the devices needing this heavy oil do not have pumps for transferring the oil with only a portion of the lowermost gears bathed in an oil sump. This heavy oil can create viscous drag leading to inefficiencies in vehicle operation. Some modern automatic transaxles (integrated transmission and differential) do not use a heavy oil at all but lubricate with the lower viscosity hydraulic fluid, which is available at pressure within the automatic transmission.
Most lubricants for manual gearboxes and differentials are hypoid gear oils. These contain extreme pressure (EP) additives and antiwear additives to cope with the sliding action of hypoid bevel gears.
EP additives which contain phosphorous/sulfurous compounds are corrosive to yellow metals such as the copper and/or brass used in bushings and synchronizers; the GL1 class of gear oils does not contain any EP additives and thus finds use in applications which contain parts made of yellow metals.
GL-5 is not necessarily backward-compatible in synchros-mesh transmissions which are designed for a GL-4 oil: GL-5 has a lower coefficient of friction due to the higher concentration of EP additives over GL-4, and thus synchros can not engage as effectively. Also, transmissions which explicitly call for GL-4 oil may have been designed around this lower concentration of EP additives and thus may contain yellow metal parts which GL-5 will corrode. 
Gear oils are classified by the American Petroleum Institute using GL ratings. For example, most modern gearboxes require a GL-4 oil, and separate differentials (where fitted) require a GL-5 oil. It is important that purchasers check the oil against the vehicle manufacturer's specification to ensure it does not contain any aggressive chemicals that may attack yellow metal gear components, such as phosphor bronze.
API viscosity ratings for gear oils are not directly comparable with those for motor oil, and they are thinner than the figures suggest. For example, many modern gearboxes use a 75W90 gear oil, which is actually of equivalent viscosity to a 10W40 motor oil. Multigrade gear oils are becoming more common; while gear oil does not reach the temperatures of motor oil, it does warm up appreciably as the car is driven, due mostly to shear friction (with a small amount of heat conduction through the bellhousing from the engine block).
Fully synthetic gear oils are also used in many vehicles, and have a greater resistance to shear breakdown than mineral oils.
API Category GL-1 (inactive*) designates the type of service characteristic of manual transmissions operating under such mild conditions of low unit pressures and minimum sliding velocities, that untreated oil may be used satisfactorily. Oxidation and rust inhibitors, defamers and pour depressants may be used to improve the characteristics of lubricants intended for this service. Friction modifiers and extreme pressure additives shall not be used.
API Category GL-2 (inactive*) designates the type of service characteristic of automotive type worm-gear axles operating under such conditions of load, temperature and sliding velocities, that lubricants satisfactory for API GL-1 service will not suffice.
API Category GL-3 (inactive*) designates the type of service characteristic of manual transmissions and spiral-bevel axles operating under mild to moderate to severe conditions of speed and load. These service conditions require a lubricant having load-carrying capacities greater than those that will satisfy APL GL-1 service, but below the requirements of lubricants satisfying the API GL-4 service.
API Category GL-4 designates the type of service characteristic of spiral-bevel and hypoid gears in automotive axles operated under moderate speeds and loads. These oils may be used in selected manual transmission and transaxle applications.
API Category GL-5 designates the type of service characteristic of gears, particularly hyoids in automotive axles under high-speed and/or low-speed, high-torque conditions. Lubricants qualified under U.S. Military specification MIL-L-2105D (formerly MIL-L-2015C), MIL-PRF-2105E and SAE J2360 satisfy the requirements of the API GL-5 service designation.
API Category GL-6 (inactive*) designates the type of service characteristic of gears designed with a very high pinion offset. Such designs typically require (gear) score protection in excess of that provided by API GL-5 gear oils. The original API GL-6 test equipment is obsolete.
API Category MT-1 designates lubricants intended for non-synchronized manual transmissions used in buses and heavy-duty trucks. Lubricants meeting API MT-1 provide protection against the combination of thermal degradation, component wear, and oil seal deterioration which is not provided by lubricants meeting only the requirements of API GL-4 and API GL-5.
MIL-PRF-2105E this specification released in 1995 combines the performance requirements of its predecessor (MIL-L-2105D) and API MT-1. MIL-PRF-2105E maintains all existing chemical/physical requirements, stationary axle test requirements, field test requirements and data review by the Lubricants Review Institute that were required under MIL-L-2105D. It also adds the stringent oil seal compatibility and thermal durability test requirements under API MT-1. MIL-PRF-2105E has been re-written as SAE Standard J2360. SAE J2360 standard is a new global quality standard that defines a level of performance equivalent to that defined by MIL-PRF-2105E, a U.S. military standard for approval that was not available to oil blenders in all parts of the world. It includes all of the most recent axle and transmission testing requirements identified in API GL-5, API MT-1, and MIL-PRF-2105E including the need to demonstrate proof-of-performance through rigorous field testing.
API Categories GL-1, GL-2, GL-3 and GL-6 were declared inactive by SAE Technical Committee 3 in 1995, even though oils may be marketed with these designations. Similarly, ASTM does not plan to maintain the performance tests associated with these categories, as in a number of cases these tests can no longer be run because parts or test installations are not available.
- Viscosity Index
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia
Viscosity index (VI) is an arbitrary measure for the change of viscosity with variations in temperature. The lower the VI, the greater the change of viscosity of the oil with temperature and vice versa. It is used to characterize viscosity changes with relation to temperature in lubricating oil.
The viscosity of liquids decreases as temperature increases. The viscosity of a lubricant is closely related to its ability to reduce friction. Generally, the least viscous lubricant which still forces the two moving surfaces apart is desired. If the lubricant is too viscous, it will require a large amount of energy to move (as in honey); if it is too thin, the surfaces will come in contact and friction will increase.
Many lubricant applications require the lubricant to perform across a wide range of conditions, for example, automotive lubricants are required to reduce frictionbetween engine components when the engine is started from cold (relative to the engine's operating temperatures) up to 200 °C or 392 °F when it is running. The best oils with the highest VI will remain stable and not vary much in viscosity over the temperature range. This allows for consistent engine performance within the normal working conditions.
The VI scale was set up by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). The temperatures chosen arbitrarily for reference are 100 and 210 °F (38 and 99 °C). The original scale only stretched between VI=0 (lowest VI oil, naphthenic) and VI=100 (best oil, paraffinnic) but since the conception of the scale better oils have also been produced, leading to VIs greater than 100 (see below).
VI improving additives and higher quality base oils are widely used nowadays which increase the VIs attainable beyond the value of 100. The Viscosity Index ofsynthetic oils ranges from 80 to over 400.
The viscosity index can be calculated using the following formula:
where V indicates the viscosity index, U the kinematic viscosity at 40 °C (104 °F), and L & H are various values based on the kinematic viscosity at 100 °C (212 °F) available in ASTM D2270.
- Information on Hydraulic Liquids
A hydraulic liquid that is needed to transmit energy in hydraulic systems.
Requirement for hydraulic liquids – especially in construction machinery.
- Good lubrication properties high resistance to aging
- High wetting capacity and adhesive power
- High flashpoint
- Low pour point (lowest temperature at which oil is still liquid; e.g. -5 degree Celsius)
- Must not affect gaskets
- Resin and acid free
- Low influence of temperature on viscosity – both dynamic viscosity , which usually increases as the temperature rises, and kinematic viscosity (the relationship between the dynamic viscosity and the density)
- Low compressibility
Hydraulic fluids are composed differently depending on the application and required properties:
The most frequently used hydraulic liquid is mineral oil-based, with suitable additives. It is also known as hydraulic oil. The requirements for this hydraulic oil are set out in ISO 6743-4 with the designations HL, HM, HV. In Germany, the designations HL, HLP, HVLP are standard, in accordance with DIN 51524.
H and HH: Mineral oil with no active ingredients – is no longer used in practice.
HL: with active ingredients to increase the corrosion protection and resistance to aging
HM: with active ingredients to increase the corrosion protection and resistance to aging and to reduce wear due to scoring in the mixed friction area.
HLP: further active ingredients in addition to HL oil to reduce wear and increase resistance in the mixed frication area – widest application in practice
HV and HVLP: Like HLP, but with increased resistance to aging, as well as an improved temperature-viscosity relationship
HLPD: Like HLP, but with additives to improve particle transport (detergent effect) and dispersion capacity (water carrying capacity) and active ingredients to increase the corrosion protection (German designation, not standardized)
Flame Resistant Fluids
HFAE : Oil in water emulsions
- The water content is above 80% and is mixed with a mineral oil or soluble polygly col-based concentrate.
- With a mineral-oil-based concentrate, there is the risk of separation and microbe growth flame resistant, can b used at temperatures between +5 °C and +55 °C
- No risk of separation, since this a true solution, which means the hydraulic components are considerably more susceptible to corrosion
- The water content is above 40% and is mixed with a mineral oil. This emulsion is rarely used.
- Flame resistant, can be used at temperatures between +5 °C and +60 °C.
- In Germany, HFB fluids are not permitted due to the lack of fire protection properties.
- The water content is more then 35% in a polymer solution
- Flame resistant, can be used at temperatures between -20 °C and +60 °C.
- Can be used at pressures of 250 bar.
- HFD-R: phosphoric esters
- HFD-S: anhydrous chlorinated hydrocarbons
- HFD-T: mixture of DFD-R and HFD-S
- HFD-U: anhydrous other composition (consisting of fatty acid esters)
- Synthetic liquids have a higher density than mineral oil or water (not HFD-U), they can cause problems with the suction performance of pumps and affect a lot of gasket materials.
- Flame resistant, can be used at temperatures between -20°C and +150 °C.
Biodegradable hydraulic liquids are manufactured using plant oils. (e.g rapeseed oil ) and used in biologically critical environments (construction machinery in water protection areas, snow grooming equipment in mountains ,etc.). the fluids are class 1 harmful substances.
Labeling: HE = Hydraulic Environmental
HETG (Triglyceride base = plant oils),
HEES (Synthetic ester base),
HEPG (polyglycol base),
HEPR (other base liquids, Primarily Poly-alpha-olefins).
Water is unobjectionable as a hydraulic liquid in every respect (without corrosion protection, however). Pure water is not used in power hydraulics; it is mixed with oil to form an emulsion, similar to cutting oil in cutting machines (in some case there is the problem of separation here). The first technical use of hydraulics employed water as the fluid. Water has a practically constant low viscosity.
• Tap water (filered)
• Technical Water (water –oil emulsion)
• Sea and salt water (filtered, not suitably due to aggressiveness)
- ACEA Engine Oil Specification
ACEA Engine Oil Speciﬁcation
What does ACEA mean?
ACEA is the abbreviation for association des constructors Europeans Automobiles (Union of European car manufacturers).
This committee has developed new classifications for the application of engine oils in gasoline, passenger cars diesel and heavy-duty diesel engines.
(ACEA European Oil Sequences for Service Fill Oils).
Why new classiﬁcations?
While revising the former CCMC‘ classiﬁcations and the regrouping to the ACEA norms the following aspects have been in the limelight:
- Updating of the demands and the employed motor tests to achieve a more topical testing of the lubricants and to meet the increased requirements because of the present motor engineering. The CCMC classifications partly have been over 10 years old and therefore did not present the current state of engineering any longer.
- Introduction of a quality system to record the test results. The new system provides that all achieved results (both the reference tests and the real candidate tests) have to be registered at the European Registration centre. With that, ACEA tests shall be auditable by neutral authorities and it shall be prevented that not tested products can b assessed ACEA classifications.
This way, the new ACEA classifications are representing a higher and more current standard of performance as the former CCMC categories.
What has changes at the ACEA?
Apart from the name some more things have changed at ACEA. Therefore, a direct translation from CCMC to ACEA is not possible. Gas engines (Gasoline)= Al, A2, A3, A4 and A5. The rating into categories for conventional oils (so far CCMC G4) and light run oils (so far CCMC G5) is not longer valid and differentiation of this kinds of products is no longer possible because of the fulfilled ACEA specification. In return, a new category for so called. Fuel Economy oils has been introduced, which is showing a noticeable lowered high temperature viscosity.
Car diesel engines (Light Duty Diesel) = B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5). Here also a new category for fuel economy oils has been introduced. In addition, the demands of modern diesel engines now are covered by the inclusion of new motor tests.
Heavy-duty diesel (= E I, E2, E3, E4 and E5) The ﬁxing of these categories has been done in close following to the Mercedes-Benz pages (MB 227.1/228. I/228.5).
A1 , B1
Standard quality, normal Intervals
Min.2,9 max 3,5
A2 , B2
Standard quality, normal Intervals
A3 , B3
Heavy –duty oil, extended intervals are possible
As B3, but also for diesel direct injection
Reserved for fuel direct injection
A5 , B5
As A3/B4, but lowered HTHS
Min.2,9 max 3,5
No Longer valid since march 2000
Normal operation, normal intervals
Heavy operation, extended intervals are possible
High-heavy operation, extended intervals are possible
Heavy operations, extended intervals are possible
1)2)3) meets 1)MB228.1 or MAN 271, 2)MB228.3 or MAN M 3275, 3)MB228.5 or MAN M3277
4) Performance similar to E3, but also tested in American Motors (Mack and Cummins)
5) Introduction expected in autumn 2001.
- JASO MA and JASO MB classifications
Modern motorcycles usually have the same oil lubricating the engine and the wet clutch. For this purpose most of the time the regular friction modified engine oils are not good enough. To make sure that the right oil is used motorcycle manufacturers usually require the oil to meet one of the JASO standards explained below.
The motor oils that meet the JASO T 903:2006 standard can be classified into four grades: JASO MA, JASO MA1, JASO MA2 and JASO MB. The classification is based on the results of the JASO T 904:2006 clutch system firction test.
In order for a motor oil to meet any of the above mentioned JASO standards it must be at least of one of the following quality levels:
API SG, SH, SJ, SL, SM
ILSAC GF-1, GF-2, GF-3
ACEA A1/B1, A3/B3, A3/B4, A5/B5, C2, C3
Furthermore, the motor oil's Dynamic Friction Characteristic Index (DFI), Static Friction Characteristic Index (SFI) and Stop Time Index (STI) should be within the following limits according to the JASO 904:2006 friction test:
If all three properties of a JASO MA oil fall within the limits specified as MA1 then the oil can be classified as a JASO MA1 oil. If all its properties fall within the limits of MA2 then it can be classified as a JASO MA2 oil. If some properties fall within the MA1 subcategory but others in MA2 then the product is simply a JASO MA product.
Motor Oils Meeting JASO MA and JASO MB
Valvoline 4-Stroke Synthetic Motor Oil 10W-40 and 20W-50
Mobil 1 Racing 4T 10W-40
Red Line 10W-40 ester based motorcycle oil
Silkolene QUAD ATV 5W-40 Fully Synthetic 4-Stroke Engine Oil
- Motor oil Matters - American Petroleum Institute
- Hydrocarbon Chains
Vital to the structure of living things is the way carbon atoms tend to bond together to form a "backbone" or "skeleton" to produce hydrocarbon chains (also rings) as here illustrated by a selected number of the fully hydrogen saturated "alkanes".
Boiling point increases with lengthening of the carbon chain. Unless kept under pressure Methane to Butane quickly boils at room temperature to form a gas. The next longest chains are liquid at room temperature and are used as fast drying solvents for example in dry cleaning of clothes. Then comes oils, greases, waxes, and hard solids such as asphalt used to make roads. Hydrocarbon chains may be hundreds of carbon atoms in length even bonding together to become an almost endless.
Chains with more than three Carbon atoms can form many different structural isomers to make rings, cubes, triangles or branch off. These "isomers" have similar (but not exact for example branched design more easily burned) chemical properties as the straight-chain "n" forms shown.
An abundant source of hydrocarbons is crude oil where decomposed organic matter provides carbon and hydrogen under conditions favorable for their formation. The same hydrocarbons are also found in living things. Methane (swamp) gas is a digestion product. Others (shown below) are used in insect attraction or defense and form waxy coatings on some plants or by bees to make beeswax. The "tails" of membrane forming lipids (phospholipids) are hydrocarbon chains which accounts for their being hydrophobic (repelled by water while attracted to grease/oil) on their tail end.
Hydrocarbons are relatively inert (do not change in form over time) but is easily ignited to "burn" in atmospheric oxygen. This replaces the carbon-carbon bonds holding the hydrocarbon together with oxygen-carbon bonds to produce CO carbon monoxide and CO2 carbon dioxide with the now free hydrogen atoms also being mopped up by oxygen to produce H2O water molecules.
The above by Gary S. Gaulin may be copied as needed for educational use.